Aquatic Heteroptera of Singapore and Peninsular Malaysia – Website Updated!

Aquatic Heteroptera
of Singapore and Peninsular Malaysia

“In the fresh and marine waters of Singapore and Peninsula Malaysia, the most common and widespread insects are the aquatic heteroptera.

In 1963, C. H. Fernando and Lanna Cheng produced A guide to the Malayan Water Bugs (Hemiptera: Heteroptera) with keys to the genera for students at the University of Singapore. It is still used as a identification guide though in urgent need of revision.

Since then collections and knowledge of aquatic insects have been greatly expanded and there is an urgent need for a up to date guide.

In response to this need, a group of entomologists began publishing a series of papers from 2011 in The Raffles Bulletin of Zoology to provide a guide to the families of the aquatic heteroptera. The paper introduces the family and provides a key to the genera, an up-to-date list of species, and information on biology, habitats and distribution.

The series was dedicated to Dr. Herbert C. Fernando “who almost single-handedly started the study of aquatic insects in the Department of Zoology at the then University of Singapore.”. He is now Professor Emeritus, Department of Biology, University of Waterloo, Ontario, Canada.

This series of papers are a significant resource for scientists, managers, conservationists and educators.

In recognition of this ongoing contritbution, this webpage was established in 2004. All the papers are available for free downloads and it is hoped this will facilitate its use.”

To visit the webpage, please go to

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